Difillobotrioz . The activator is lentets wide, and also a number small lentetsov. Lentets the wide concerns to large gelmintam, reaches length from 2 to 10 m, and sometimes - 15-20 m, width to 15 mm. Lentets, parasitizing in a human body, daily allocates over 2 million eggs which with excrements are deduced outside. The eggs which have got to an environment, keep the viability from 3 till 30 days then perish. They continue development in the event that get to water. In water from egg in two-three weeks it is deduced koratsidy - the smallest parasite invisible with open years. Koratsidy actively floats in water, it has a ciliary cover and three pairs krjuchev. Life expectancy lentetsa in this stage makes depending on a water temperature - 1-12 days. In this time the parasite finds the intermediate owner - various kinds veslonogih rachkov. In intestines of these Crustacea there is a development by the second lichinochnoj stages - protserkoroida. In everyone rachke there can be to 20 protserkoroidov in the length 0,5 0,7 mm.
Infected rachkov eat fishes, basically the predatory. rachki are digested, and protserkoroidy, proburivaja intestines, leave in muscles of fish, settle in caviar or in a various internal. Here they for 4-5 weeks reach last lichinochnoj stages - plerotserkoida. At this age they already have length 1-3 and even 5 mm. The person, using badly boiled thoroughly or fried thoroughly fish, catches a parasite. For 14-30 days lentets reaches polovozreloj germafroditnoj stages. Duration of their life if not to take measures to treatment, 20 and more years.
The Parasite, being attached to intestines mucous membrane, will wound intestines, izjazvljaet it. Ability to live products gelminta conduct to allergic reactions. Functions of a stomach and other digestive bodies are broken. There comes an avitaminosis. The patient feels headaches and the belly-aches accompanied by attacks of a nausea and vomiting. The person has undue fatigability, dizziness, palpitation and other infringements.
Treat difillobotrioz fenasalom. Special preparation of the patient thus it is not required, unless in day of treatment and the day before the food is recommended legkousvojaemaja. For treatment also are used a radio extract of a man's fern and antigelmintnyj a preparation prazikvantel. Timely treatment leads to an absolute recovery.
In the preventive purposes everyone should know that eggs disseminate also dogs, cats and other animals. Therefore one-two time a year it is necessary to subject to treatment and them.
Fish in whom it is found out lentets, is quite suitable to the use in food after necessary processing. At freezing to a minus 6-8°С protserkoidy perish later - 7 days, at a minus 26-27 ° - in 12 hours. At salting by a strong solution of salt of a larva perish in 8-10 days. Caviar is disinfected as. At zharenii or cooking of fish by small slices plerotserkoidy perish in 20-30 minutes, on reaching temperature plus 50°С. At more heat time for heat treatment is reduced, they perish faster. In fish of cold smoking of a larva of parasites keep the viability. In vjalenoj to fish - the same. However in vjalenoj to fish at temperature 36-39°С they perish in two days. Absolutely dried up fish is harmless.
We have stopped on this point in question so in detail because told equally concerns other similar parasites. The main thing the nobility, whence threatens danger, and to be able to struggle with it.
Teniarinhoz . The activator is tape gelmint - unaided tsepen (bull tsepen). Length of 4-12 m. On a head are available well developed four suckers. The body consists from almost square 1000 2000 chlenikov-proglottid. In everyone ripened proglottide contains from 145 to 175 thousand eggs. For a year the parasite can allocate in an environment to 2500 proglottid with a total sum of eggs about 440 million Egg in an environment can be stored about one year. Develops by means of two owners. Cattle, eating a grass or hay on which there are scattered eggs, catches. The parasite for 4-5 months passes in an organism of cattle two stages to tsistitserka. Life expectancy tsistitserka in muscles of the intermediate owner of 8-9 months then it degenerates and perishes. The person catches in case he will eat insufficiently boiled thoroughly meat having tsistitserki.
The Person, as a rule, becomes the definitive owner of a parasite if the parasite turns to the adult individual. Eggs of parasites fishers when dig worms near cattle-breeding farms subject to special danger of infection themselves. Eggs together with a dirt get on hands, clothes, and then - to a mouth. Such danger exists and ashore where the cattle is usually grazed.
Treatment and preventive maintenance the same that have been described above. Medical products: fenasal, dihlosal, trihlosal, prazikvantel, a radio extract of a man's fern. A parasite expel also a pumpkin seed.
Gimenolepioz . Intestinal gelmint in total length 3 5 sm, so-called dwarfish tsepen. Has 100-300 small proglottid. All cycle of development occurs in one organism. Can develop also, changing the owner. Parasitizes usually in the bottom part of a small intestine. Infection occurs from rodents. Ashore it is frequent in backpacks where lie prikormka, an oil cake, a foodstuff, the infected rats, mice at night get and leave there eggs of parasites which then get to a mouth of the person. They get into an organism through dirty hands, products, various subjects. Eggs dwarfish tsepnja can get to a mouth with water, a dust. Eggs and the flies visiting lost mice, rats and their excrement carry. Preventive maintenance - the same.
Rat (diminutnyj) tsepen . The length from 20 to 60 see Has unaided hobotok and four suckers. Life cycle passes with change of two owners. Intermediate owners can be a considerable quantity (about 30 kinds) insects and multilegs, including mosquitoes, fleas, cockroaches. Definitive owners: rats, mice, dogs, the person. To catch eggs it is possible from a sting of a mosquito, the gadfly, a flea, and also - from products with which mice and rats communicated. Therefore it is very important ashore, and also in house conditions to observe personal hygiene, to accept only high-quality food, to protect itself from insects. Treat fenasalom and other preparations.
Ehinokokkoz . The smallest tape-worm. Length of 8-9 mm. Larvae parasitize in a liver and other bodies of the person. Polovozrelye individuals parasitize in a small intestine of various animals, and also the person. Eggs of a parasite are very durable. In a human body during the period lichinochnogo developments are formed the big bubbles filled with a liquid. At times in such bubbles contains 10-16 and more litres of a liquid. Very often the parasite causes ehinokokkoz a liver, lungs, a spleen, kidneys, bones, muscles, the central nervous system. The person catches directly from a house dog, and oposredovanno - from all pets. The fisher often catches at kopke hearts near farms, in places of a dump of dust, at the food use, dirty hands. It is impossible to be accepted ashore therefore to food, without having washed carefully a hand, with which just nasazhival on a hook of hearts. On fishing with itself always it is necessary to take a small slice of soap. Treatment - a surgical method.