Now we will talk about feeding of fishes, creation in a reservoir of a good natural forage reserve in more details. As to predatory fishes it has already been told: they should deliver constantly a live forage, or to instal and make multiple copies in a pond the weed small fish, rachkov, molluscs and other water organisms or to do both that, and another. For rastitelnojadnyh fishes taking into account their "interests" it is necessary to dissolve corresponding water vegetation in a pond.
From the very beginning it is necessary to take care of creation in a pond of favorable conditions for development of many water organisms which can serve as a forage for fishes. The smallest seaweed - a phytoplankton and a zooplankton - dafnii, a Cyclops, kolovratki and others, together with bentos - the animal organisms adapted for a life on a ground, at the bottom of a reservoir - all it is a valuable forage for different fishes.
And here that the natural forage reserve constantly developed and by that efficiency of fishes raised, it is necessary to introduce organic and mineral fertilizers in a pond. The optimum dose considers presence of nitrogen of 2 mg/l and 0,5 mg/l of phosphorus. Mineral fertilizers bring once in ten days from calculation of ammoniac saltpeter of 50 kg and 10 kg of superphosphate on 1 hectare of a pond. The dose of entering of fertilizer is reduced in intensive feeding of fish.
For increase of a forage reserve of fish-breeding ponds experts advise to bring in water the vitaminized granulated forages prepared from vegetative food in animal industries. For granulirovanija vegetation, as it is known, apply units. At desire it is possible to organise manufacture on these units of granules from vodno-coastal vegetation with addition of components rich with nitrogen (ranks, lucernes) that considerably will raise udobritelnyj effect of these granules.
At entering of vegetative granules into a pond they within 1-15 days break up to very small particles which are in a suspension and acquire bacteria, become a zooplankton forage. The weighed vegetative particles are filtered by silver carps and with it fill up the diet. Considering that vegetative granules are high-speed and strong organic fertilizer, they are especially important for bringing in just created ponds where still it is not enough gumusa and mineral fertilizers are not effective. To bring granules it is possible from calculation 100 - 300 kg on hectare once a week.
The Granulated vegetation serves as food for molodi fishes and promotes growth of quantity of large forms of cages of bacteria that in two-three times will raise their general biomass. Granules provide uniform distribution on a reservoir of fodder organisms, favorably influence efficiency of a zooplankton and zoofitosa, do not worsen a gas mode of a pond. In fertilised reservoirs well develop vetvistousye rachki, kolovratki and larvae hironomid.
The pond Forage reserve can be increased also at the expense of attraction in a reservoir of flying insects. For this purpose in 30-40 sm over water establish fluorescent lamps, mercury quartz or lamps nakalivanija with reflectors. At night the insects involved on light, hit in reflectors and fall in water. Well isolated lamps can be established and at the bottom, it is direct at fodder fish "table". Lamps will involve in themselves in a considerable quantity water organisms where they and will be eaten by fishes.
It is possible to apply and such way of increase in number motylja. On urezu waters stack podvjalennye bunches of soft and rigid water vegetation in a mix with manure and the earth so that under them there was a sheet of water in 10 15 see this environment quickly the additional forage develops: larvae hironomid, a zooplankton, bentos.
Besides, for example, dafnii, it is possible to grow up a live forage. Nearby to a pond dig out a hole in the size 1х1х0,5 m. On its bottom stack rerotting manure and an oblique grass, pour in kg of superphosphate and in two kgs of ammoniac saltpeter. A hole fill in with water. From the nearest stagnant reservoir deliver matochnoe herd rachkov (40-100 g on 1 м2). Rachkov feed up hydrolytic or fodder yeast at first on norm 10-15 g on 1 м3 waters, then quantity it increase in two-three times. Maturing dafny at temperature plus 18-20°С lasts about one month, at temperature 23-25°С - 18-20 days. Dafny periodically catch a net from a kapron stocking and feed to fishes. It is necessary to leave only a part for the subsequent reproduction. At observance of the specified conditions it is monthly possible to receive 1-1,5 kg of a live forage from 1 м3 waters. Two such plantations, serially oblavlivaemye, will provide fish with a fresh forage during all warm season.
Dafny can plant and in polyethylene capacities. As a substratum I use polusprevshee hay with the additive of fertilizers. Capacities fill in with water. On 1 l of water take 15 20 g fresh cow manure and 100 g the sifted earth. A mix maintain within 3-5 days at temperature 20°С. Then contents filter and dilute with water in the ratio 1:4. In capacity start on each 100 l of a mix approximately on 50 dafny. In 2-3 weeks rachki will divorce in a considerable quantity. Rachkov feed up yeast from calculation 15 g on 1 м3 waters. Colour of water should be greenish or brownish. Such shade to it is given by microscopic seaweed which eat dafnii. More dark, brown shade of water testifies about adverse for a life dafny conditions. In that case their top dressing should be stopped. One-two time a week it is necessary to add 1 g ammoniac saltpeter. Good top dressing for dafny - water in which washed meat.
Approximately as grow up trubochnikov (enhitreusov). Them plant in friable chernozem with humidity no more than 40%, mixed with peat. In the nature they eat the decaying vegetative rests. At artificial reproduction it is possible to use and a kitchen waste. Top dressing put in furrows which then from above cover with the earth. Plant them in wooden boxes in the size 50х40х12 of 10 sm see With 1 м2 a layer of earth depth collect to 49 hearts. Apply also such way of cultivation trubochnikov: sift small garden earth and mix it with the moss pounded in a powder or dry sapropel. Take some spoons of grain of wheat and as much rice and boil 20 minutes in pure rain or prudovoj to water. Then grain knead, add milk and with the received broth water the prepared substratum. A box with a substratum put in two days in a dark place. This environment bacteria which eats trubochnik quickly develop. The matochnuju culture trubochnika should be prepared and brought in a substratum with which water rain or prudovoj with water and in which weekly bring top dressing (yeast).
For cultivation oligohet - white worms - in an earthen substratum bring matochnuju culture of hearts till 40-50 g on each box. After that prepare a forage: rye bran, a flour dust, a potato, fodder yeast knead and zaparivajut in the form of porridge. The forage brings in a substratum and cover with earth. Hearts postpone on 3-4 eggs a day. For development the temperature, plus 16-18°С is considered normal. Development proceeds about one week. vykljunuvshajasja from cocoons molod for the fourth day starts to eat actively, and for 21-23 days young hearts become polovozrelymi. To take worms, on a box, direct a strong ray of light or warm up it. Hearts concentrate at the bottom. A box overturn and collect worms. In a substratum remains many eggs, therefore the earth return in a box, and the cycle repeats.