Fish breeders also should learn to prepare and the special, combined forage. Here approximately from what such forage prepares: groats wheaten, barley, corn and another - 35-40 percent, an oil cake - 45, a fish flour - 5, mjasokostnaja a flour - 5, fodder yeast - 4, a chalk - 1-2 percent. Into a forage can enter and other components of products available in an economy. It is especially important to add such microcells, as chloride cobalt, sernokislyj manganese, sernokislaja copper, an antibiotic penicillin and others. At these additives growth of fish increases, she is not ill. However it is necessary to remember what to use them it is necessary cautiously, doses on 1 kg of weight of fish should not exceed 0,01 mg.
Karpovye of fish willingly eat various oil cakes, yeast, products of a microbiological and animal origin, and also a waste of slaughter-houses and dining rooms, mjasokostnuju, a fish flour and other. The carp with pleasure eats also a kitchen waste, it is desirable only that they were not zhizheobraznymi. As a forage it is possible to use in the crude or prepared kind all vegetative products and the most various seeds, oil cakes and shroty, the rests from processing of technical and other cultures, say, everything that is available. In a forage add the crushed water and land vegetation. Including cabbage leaves, a nettle, rogoz, strelolist. And as add a duckweed, rdest, elodeju, pulp of a water-melon, cucumbers, cherries, mulberries etc. That the forage was high-grade, it do on various mixes. For example, add podsolnechnikovye mixes, rapsovye and soya oil cakes, shroty - 40 percent. Grain mixes: wheat, corn, barley, an oats and other - 30 - 35 percent. Bean mixes: ljupin, lentil, peas, vika, etc. Fish or mjasokostnaja a flour - 5-10 percent; hydrolytic yeast - 4; a chalk - 1 percent.
The Forage at first mixes up in a dry kind, and then water is added, but it is so much, that it was not liquid, but strong, well stuck together, "stsementirovannyj". A forage it is necessary to get mixed up on starched paste, klejkovine, gelatin, clay and the friend so it is better eaten and it is not scattered on a bottom.
It is necessary to adhere to a rule: fish will better underfeed, than to overfeed. It is necessary to give a forage, strictly considering requirements of fish for the forage rests decay. If in a reservoir there are no cancers or other fishes selecting the rests, there is a rotting of water and deterioration of an oxygen mode. Grown up fish is necessary for accustoming to a certain mode of feeding.
The Forage for deep-water fishes is better to lower on a bottom without scattering, and on the special tray suspended on slings, or to throw it in a certain place on a pure equal bottom where it will be slowly washed away, and to be eaten by fishes. The forage for riding fishes should float and, being washed away, gradually to fall on a bottom. Dli riding fishes with a forage can be suspended a tray in the top sheets of water. It is possible to hold constantly also on a water surface a floating circle in which to throw a forage for riding fishes.
It is very important to solve and such question: whether it is necessary to feed fishes in the winter? And this question far not idle for there is an opinion that fishes during winter time do not eat. Whether but so it? Unless winter ulovy do not say what fishes come across on a hook not for the sake of the curiosity?
It is not necessary to doubt, probably, that the food is necessary to fishes the same as also all animal. It serves as an energy source for ability to live maintenance, a material for a plastic exchange. However, many animals including fish, to lower power expenses, have adapted to reduce intensity of exchange processes in adverse conditions and to run into an anabiosis condition.
According to experts, long starvation is one of the major factors adversely affecting an organism of wintering fishes. Starvation leads to reduction of power resources and destruction of fishes. As a result of starvation fatty regeneration of a liver that is closely connected with activization of oxidising processes begins. Together with the receipt termination in a food organism receipt of very necessary substances and elements, such, as manganese, tocopherol and others which possess antioxidizing properties stops also. Oxidation process lipidov becomes more active as well under the influence of developing on gills zhelezobaktery in the winter.
Power inputs at molodi fishes are especially great in the winter. Researches, for example, show that "hibernation" is absolutely not peculiar godovikam a carp. They keep activity in conditions even very low temperatures. It the big losses of spare nutrients in an organism of fishes appreciably speak during wintering. Losses of weight of a body segoletkov by the wintering end can reach a carp of 37,5 percent, fat - 84-93 percent. Therefore it is necessary to care of catering services of fishes all the winter long. Winter feeding is necessary not only and not so much to raise power resources of fishes, how many for introduction in their organism of some connections and the substances normalising exchange processes during wintering. Thus it is necessary to know that at a part of fishes in the winter the requirement for food not only does not go down, but even raises. Other fishes if do not run into an anabiosis condition in warming, thaw, receipts in a reservoir fresh, thawed snow, can start to eat. Besides on food process, its activity and duration essential influence is rendered by climatic belts, severity of winter. So, if somewhere the carp lies down in thorough "bear" hibernation and practically does not peck, at fishers-fans a carp - not such and rare winter extraction.
Fish breeders should watch a condition of wintering fishes and to offer them a forage. If fishes do not eat, it is not necessary to be afraid that the hydrological mode of water thereby will worsen: in the conditions of the lowered temperature it not very much spoils. If fishes cease to take a forage it is a signal of the beginning of "hunger-strike". If eat offered food, means, it is necessary to continue to feed in former volume. Eating of a forage without the rest says that its volume needs to be increased. Besides, it is necessary to know and that circumstance that some kinds of fishes (even during the various periods of summer) change the diet, pass that to vegetative food, on food of an animal origin. Therefore, if your crucians or other fishes have ceased to eat the rests of grain products, oil cakes, porridges, try to offer them motylja, rachkov-bokoplavov or other usual small inhabitants of fresh reservoirs.
The Workers who are engaged in industrial fish culture, before landing of fishes to wintering bring superphosphate, potash and nitric fertilizers in ponds. It promotes development of a phytoplankton which at photosynthesis, not only allocates oxygen and improves an oxygen mode of a pond, but also serves as a forage water bespozvonochnym, and those in turn, fill up a natural forage reserve of reservoirs. Therefore all these circumstances should be meant and prudovodam.
However winters happen different. In one geographical belt the winter happens long and severe, in other - shorter, and in the third - in general snowless. At a water temperature 8-14°С if not to organise top dressing of fish, it will be exhausted and can be lost. Segoletkov it is necessary to feed from calculation: at a water temperature 7-9°С - one percent of a dry feed from weight of fish, from above 10°С - 1,5 2 percent, to adult individuals, accordingly, - 2-3 percent from their weight.
The Same it is possible to tell and about cancers. Authors of some publications assert that cancers do not eat in the winter. It not so. The Fishers-fans who are engaged in subglacial catching, well know that cancers within all winter on their fishing tackles eat round worms and motylej and often come across on a hook. Therefore cancers it is necessary to feed also in the winter. For this purpose, as well as in the summer, the various rests from your table, including - meat, fish, flour, krupjanye suit. The forage should be lowered, as it was already marked, on a bottom on special trays which are suspended by means of a scaffold or kapron cords on the pole end. It allows to keep a reservoir clean, to watch, how those or other products are eaten, to consider "inquiries" of cancers and to clean the food rests.
At food studying molodi cancers it was repeatedly noticed that they eat both macroflora, and microflora, gradually passing to larger forage. That is, the it is less rachok, the more it uses animal food and, on the contrary, with increase in length of a body and weights of a cancer the vegetative food starts to prevail. But practically cancers at any age are omnivorous and from this it is necessary to proceed, caring of their forage. For cancers as well as for fishes, it is necessary to create a good natural forage reserve. At them sense of smell is well developed and they easily find to themselves food if that is available nearby. Cancers though are, to a certain extent, competitors of fishes in food, but each other they do not disturb. Moreover, their simultaneous maintenance in a reservoir is recognised by rather useful. Cancers eat the rests of the fish forage, the lost fishes and by that, play a role of hospital attendants. In a word, they eat with fishes as though behind one table, but thus are not competitors.
Experiences show full possibility of joint cultivation of fishes and cancers. In a reservoir the hierarchy among its inhabitants is quickly established. Fish gets used to cancers and does not approach to them. Moreover, cancers are afraid some fishes. For example, a catfish, nalim, a pike, a perch, a pike perch, even a carp and others eat cancers of all age. Rachja the trifle serves as food for all without an exception of fishes.