To Each fisher well-known that reservoirs are a whole kingdom of various plants. Some of them grow in a coastal strip and on shoal, exposing over water the most part of a stalk with leaves and tsvetkami. Others float, and on a surface are visible only tsvetki. Happens that the considerable part of reservoirs, especially old ponds, is tightened by a duckweed, water-lilies and other plants. Some reservoirs seem pure, "bestravnymi", however here again seaweed - not to consider. They are in a suspension, fill with itself all water space, especially top, more heated-up layers.
The World of water plants is rather rich. On the structural and morphological features they share on two big groups: the lowest plants (mikrofity), or seaweed, and the higher plants (makrofity). Ooze concerns seaweed well-known all. In summertime the big congestions of ooze float at a water surface, ponds, lakes, silent sites of the rivers. Various green or blue-green films, felt, and also vatoobraznye outgrowths on stones, piles is too seaweed. Water "blossoms" is too seaweed. There is microseaweed and in the form of well distinguishable naked eye of points, sticks, branches, stalks, leaves.
Seaweed - one of the most ancient representatives of flora. They during prehistoric times have enriched atmosphere with oxygen and became ancestors not only all modern vegetative, but also fauna.
Scientists have come to a conclusion that on the Earth and today the role of seaweed is really huge. Amaze figures when speech comes about seaweed. So, if in 1 мм3 waters, according to the most conservative estimates, contain only three plants in 1 м3 about three millions, and, how many their all in the whole reservoir - it is difficult even to present them to itself. At summer "flowering" of water in 1 sm3 can contain more than one million cages of blue-green seaweed, and it means that in 1 м3 them already about billion.
In total at world ocean, under the newest data, "productivity" of seaweed on each hectare of a water table makes 1,3-2 t a solid in a year. In Black sea, for example, the quantity of ground seaweed in the protected places makes 100-170 t, in the high sea - 77 t on each hectare for a year. In some other seas this data considerably above. In fresh-water lakes the annual production of a vegetative plankton (in crude weight) can reach to 30 t.
Sea seaweed - valuable foodstuff. In Japan they have found wide application in a food. To our readers well-known names of such products, as sea kale and laminarija. Sea seaweed in a considerable quantity is processed by the industry. From them receive various organic connections, the mineral substances, valuable medical products, spirit, acetic, dairy and other acids, acetone, aethers etc.
Last years the great attention is given to studying of fresh-water seaweed. Among them, for example, the special place occupies known hlorella. In dried up hlorelle there are 50-60 percent of fiber which contains all irreplaceable amino acids. On quality this fiber can be compared to fiber of beer yeast, a soya and peanut flour. It is equivalent to fiber of dried milk. In hlorelle 10-20 percent of the carbohydrates which considerable part is made by starch contain. At industrial kultivirovanii about 1 hectare of a water table it is possible to receive about 100 tons of a solid.
The higher water plants are especially rich with valuable substances. They contain nitrogenous substances, amino acids, alkaloidy, starch, sugar. And as fats, oils, pitch, kletchatku. Into their structure enter: sodium, magnesium, calcium, iron, kaly, aluminium, phosphoric acid, izvest.
Zernovki mannika water , for example, contain to 75 percent of starch and sugar, 9,7 percent of fiber, 0,4 - fats. In young stalks and reed leaves there are 6,72 percent of a crude protein, including 5,01 percent of pure fiber, 1,63 percent of crude fat, 52,76 percent various without nitrogenous ekstraktivnyh substances, it is a lot of vitamin (and other substances. In roots of this reed there are to 50 percent of starch, about 6 percent of sugar, 5,2 percent of fiber, 0,9 percent of fat.
Differently, all water plants, both the lowest, and the higher, have a complex of very valuable substances, and, hence, and valuable qualities. Many of these qualities are opened, well studied, and many, undoubtedly, will be still open. And practically all of them - both seaweed, and other water plants - are directly or oposredovanno a forage for fishes. So, the majority gidrobiontov, becoming, in turn, food for fishes eats seaweed and water plants. All contents of intestines of larvae podenki consist of sedge fabrics, rogolistnika rdesta, other plants. Ruchejniki, and them more than 40 kinds, actively eat the bottom parts of plants, larvae hironomid, various Crustacea and other organisms eat plants. Water plants for many of them serve not only a forage, but also a refuge, both dwelling. Many fishes at different stages of development eat seaweed and water plants, beginning from larvae and finishing adult individuals. By this time in the literature it is described 47 kinds and subspecies of fishes which eat or can eat water plants. Favourite plants, for example, a white cupid are such, as rdest edge and threadlike, elodeja, rogolistnik, a duckweed small and trehdolnaja, a splash pool, and also ground mosses, young runaways of a reed, rogoza and others.
Plants and seaweed eat a carp, leshch, a crucian, small fry, a perch, a chub and others.
Many fishers-fans successfully catch this or that fish (for example, small fry) on seaweed and water plants. It is thought that wider knowledge of water plants will enrich sports-fishing practice of fishers-fans by new kinds of nozzles. We will result some data on the most widespread plants of our reservoirs.